Friday, September 14, 2018

吊巴莪古战場


马六甲蘇丹王朝终点



置身巴莪河河口, 憑吊古战场。回顾500年前, 葡萄牙军与马六甲王朝军队的浴血大战。

500年前, 马六甲苏丹王朝在麻河与巴莪河交接地建造城堡, 以此为基地, 计划反攻马六甲.
 
他们从麻坡潛回马六甲,执行破坏活动,同时制止麻坡糧食物产输往马六甲,与萄人对抗。

15206, 葡萄牙人率500军队追杀至此,搗毁城堡, 击跨苏丹军队。最后马六甲王朝就在此地寿终正寐。

歷史學家R.O. Winstedt 寫道,15206...葡軍司令加西亞..薩決定盡可能去摧毀麻坡河上的要塞巴莪,因為蘇丹的头目們是從這里向馬六甲發動進攻的。他率領一支由五百人組成的軍隊,其中一百五十名是葡萄牙人,進行一次猛烈的襲擊,把馬來人的艦隊和堡壘都燒毀掉

 
今天巴莪河河口的Berohol 村,是500年葡馬交战的古战場。
巴莪河旁城堡煙消雲散,如今只能閱史書,想像當年情景。

這是早年葡萄牙人笔下的马来堡垒:一一
两層硬木圍牆,中间填泥。
外圍壕溝,内插尖木,尖端有毒。同时設有陷阱,树叶掩盖。

CONCERNING THE FORTRESSES.
The fortresses and fortifications of the Malayos were usually structures composed of earth placed between plank uprights.
" Nyboés” palms, very hard and strong, for constructing defences .... are used for fortifying the centres .
In addition to their fortifications, they dig deep pits in front of wooden fences; these pits contain traps and pointed sticks treated with poison; they also make use of holes covered with branches, and of traps set in ambush, with which they inflict much damage.
---- Godinho De Eredia 1613

葡萄牙人筆下的馬來武士:沙龍、長矛、马来短劍、赤足,矛尖和剑锋有毒。


马来兵器和战术--
在葡萄牙人笔下,马来军队常用之战术是,在密林狹道埋伏和袭击。靠人數优势袭敌。马来人在战场上常用之兵器:
弓箭、长矛、巴冷刀和马耒Keris短剑、盾牌和喷筒。喷简射出的针头有毒, 马来短剑塗有剧毒,一般上马来人兵器上都塗毒液,尤其是箭头.

The armed forces of the Malayos make use of attacks and sallies in mass formation...... ambush in the narrow paths and woods and thickets, and then make an attack with body of armed men.

The arms which they ordinarily use in warfare are the sword, shield, lance, bows and arrows, an:d blow-pipes with poisoned darts.The sword is called “Padan” , it has a single edge. The dagger, called Crîs" , is made of fine steel; it bears a deadly poison; the sheath is of wood; the hilt is of animals' horn, or of rare stone, or of gold and precious gems.

The steel is treated in such a way that every injury is followed by immediate death when the wound draws blood.
---- Godinho De Eredia 1613

麻河與支流巴莪河位置圖。


歷史學家R.O. Winstedt 在他的著作《馬來亞史》中說,馬六甲蘇丹王朝建國者拜里米蘇拉從新加坡逃亡後,來到麻坡河,在那里居住了六年,跟隨他的人從事捕魚和掠奪,采伐森林和種植果園稻田

他說,最後,海上吉卜賽人把拜里米蘇拉帶領到馬六甲,在1403年前不久,他就移居馬六甲

麻坡是马六甲蘇丹王朝的起源地,也是终结点。
马六甲苏丹王朝起點:麻坡文打河煙旁的Kubu Biawak Busuk 和丹戎实拉务麻河旁的Kubu Kota Buruk .拜里迷蘇拉在這兩地建馬來城堡。



Kota ini menjadi lokasi terawal Pusat Pentadbiran Parameswara sebelum baginda membuka Kota Melaka pada tahun 1403.
Mengikut fakta sejarah, Kota Buruk dipercayai dibina oleh Parameswara pada abad ke-14 selepas mendapati Kota Biawak Busuk tidak lagi sesuai untuk dijadikan pusat pentadbiran serta kediamannya selepas melarikan diri dari Temasik atau kini dikenali sebagai Singapura.
麻坡畫家Sabaria 筆下的文打煙战役,葡萄牙軍猛攻,馬來軍抵抗。

Saturday, August 18, 2018

過番、奮鬥、史照


 向先輩致敬


先輩下南洋,千辛萬苦。歷史照片,告訴我們,這個民族堅韌不拔精神。面對逆境,面對欺壓,堅強活下去。有些人,闖出藍天。
通過這組照片,讓我們回顧先輩的艱辛,向他們致敬。沒有他們堅持奮鬥,就沒有我們的今天。

(一)過番史照:下南洋,碼頭送別


 
"He left home for Nanyang, She rushed to Shatou to stop him. Nanyang was a good place To earn good money.
My dear wife, Do not worry, Once I make enough money, I shall return."

阿哥出門去過番,妹子趕到汕头攬。
賢妻不用多掛慮,赚到銀紙轉唐山。

(二)過番史照沙丁魚船

1900年,先輩過番。
 
 
帶著淘金梦,一船沙丁魚,抵達新加坡。
 
"We were fleeing our war-torn and impoverished land so that we could work and send money home to our families. We boarded coolie ships, filled with hope and trepidation. Conditions on board the ships were appalling."

(三)過番史照荒島檢疫

新客檢疫中心,棋璋山,圣约翰岛(St John’s Island)。
Quarantine Station Singapore, 1920
 
 
1920年,先輩登島隔離,檢疫後,才能入境。
苦力到達陌生港口,開始以體力幹活,換取食宿。
 




为生话,炎陽下, 先辈赤足奔跑。英國人賣鴉片賺錢,苦力抽鴉片變排骨仙。
海峡时报3-12-1903的麻坡報導:
20輛黃包車招徠客人,車雖陳舊,深受歡迎。
但下雨天, 客人召喚,苦力不出车。
 
A
bout a score of rikishas ply for hire. These dilapidated ricks are welcome.
The coolies are rather independent and refuse to come out in rainy weather.
--- The Straits Times 3-12-1903 



)過番史照:小販售貨

初到南洋,過番客什麼都幹,只求生活。
發達前,早年麻坡富豪鄭文炳,肩挑貨物,走路做生意,從馬六甲步行至麻坡。他成為麻坡同盟會領袖,麻坡抗日籌賑運動領袖。


"To succeed in life, learn to eat bitterness". Although thousands had started out as poor coolies, many did not remain so for ever. 吃得苦中苦,方為人上人。



(六)過番史照:苦力Chinese coolies

先輩當苦力,以體力換三餐。只要有手有腳,我們就餓不死。有耐性,就能活下去

 " Most of us ate bitterness with a smiling face and wiped our tears upon our knees. We were called 'coolie' by others, meaning 'bitter strength'.

11-1-1942年日本战機炸麻坡,第一顆炸彈炸沉大鐘樓旁貨輪〈武林〉号,十多名碼頭苦力冤死麻河。Coolies died in Muar River under the bombing of the Japanese war planes.